System for Probabilistic and Logical Reasoning

Under contract with DARPA, GCAS has designed a Knowledge Acquisition Tool. The result of this effort is a System for Probabilistic and Logical Reasoning (SPLORE) that integrates the state-of-the-art techniques in both logical and probabilistic reasoning through the complement of the Knowledge Machine (KM) and Probabilistic Relational Models (PRMs) languages. KM is a full First-Order Logic reasoning system operating on Knowledge Bases (KBs). PRMs are the object-oriented and relational extension of Bayesian Networks (BNs), and are compatible with Ontology and KB systems. SPLORE allows modeling any complex system starting from structured building blocks (classes). Each class represents both logical predicates through KM concepts and probabilistic knowledge via PRMs constructs. These classes are arranged in a KB and related in both logical and probabilistic fashions. A Graphical User Interface allows the user to express both logical and probabilistic knowledge with a uniform graphical paradigm. SPLORE is also the first system that integrates the novel technique for decision-making in multi-agent games represented by Networks of Influence Diagrams (NIDs). NIDs model the behavior of several agents in an interactive domain and introduce a “naturalistic” approach into BN reasoning. The original goal of SPLORE was to allow Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) to directly encode complex real-world battle space scenarios for Courses of Action (COA) generation. This COA synthesis exploits Predictive Battlespace Awareness at both Level II (Situation Assessment) and Level III (Impact Assessment) data fusion. Level II/III data fusion has widespread importance in military, intelligence and civilian organizations.